Early Work: Continuous Feedback Networks:







"The overall rotatation characterizing a Bernard roll will force the liquid molecules to move in particular directions rather than others. This constraint cannot be understood from the interactions on the level of the molecule: it is determined by the emergent level. This is called downward causation: it is as if the higher level exerts influence downward to the lower level, causing the molecules to act in a particular way. Downward causation is to be contrasted with the more traditional "upward" causation underlying Newtonian reductionism, where the behavior of the whole is fully determined by the behavior of the parts." Francis Heylighen